Lens Coverage and Crop Factor on 35mm >> Film and Digital Format

Posted in Cinema e Fotografia with tags , , , , , on 4 ottobre 2015 by realuca

The FOV calculator lets you plug in lenses and it will show you what it will look like depending on the size of the sensor. The chart has all lenses and sensors ranging from Super 35mm Motion Picture to ¼ inch HD, all HDSLR’s included. This is a really useful tool to help explain FOV and crop sensors.

Cameramen brought up on film might only use the word ’35mm’ in one of its cinematography avatars (just showing the horizontal sizes and aspect ratio for simplicity):

Academy – 22mm (1.375:1)
Widescreen – 21.95mm (1.85:1)
Cinemascope – 21.95mm (2.39:1)
Super 35mm 3-perf – 24.89mm (16:9, 2.39:1)
Super 35mm 4-perf – 24.89mm (4:3)

There are people who think one should use Super 35mm when calculating the 35mm equivalent. After all, for video, why should anyone consider a standard photographic sensor size anyway?

Fair enough. Which one of the above five should one pick? You see, Super 35mm is a relatively new standard (if it can be called that) even in the film world. In the digital world, even if sensor manufacturers use the term ‘Super 35mm’, they don’t actually mean the film size that it refers to. E.g (horizontal sensor sizes only):

Arri Alexa – 23.76mm
Red Epic – 27.7mm
Red Epic Dragon – 30.7mm
Blackmagic Production Camera 4K – 21.12mm
Canon C500 – 24.6mm
Sony F55 – 24mm

See more on wolfcrow

Angle of view related to different formats is where it gets tricky and we need simple math. The angle of view of the 16mm format lens is about half the angle of view of 35mm format lens. If you want to shoot the same angle, 62 degrees, you’d select a 12mm lens for the 16mm camera and a 24mm lens for your 35mm camera.

Super 35 is a very variable size, depending on company and who’s making the groundglass or frame markings. That’s why I will receive emails from Denny Clairmont and Mitch Gross as soon as they read this, because these specs require many footnotes and further explanations. I’ve rounded out the dimenstions to one decimal place for clarity.

Since there are so many aspect ratios and dimensions, lens manufacturers use a diagonal measurement (shown at bottom of page) and try to cover the most area they can.

Math: To calculate comparable angles of view
new lens mm = (new format diagonal / old format diagonal) times old lens mm

If we’re using a 40mm 2/3″ format lens, and want the equivalent 35mm full frame size, here’s the math. New lens comparable angle = (31/11) x 40. That’s because the diagonal of the NEW full 35 film frame is 31mm. The diagonal of the OLD 2/3” CCD is 11mm. The OLD lens is 40mm.

For those of us whose math is rusty: 31 divided by 11 is 2.8. Multiply 2.8 by 40 to get 113. So, the comparable lens angle of the 40mm in 2/3″ format is a 113mm in 35mm format.

See more on fdtimes

The size of the sensor will affect the image angle of view, so that a 25mm Prime lens will look different if viewed on a variety of image formats.
Thus a 25mm lens will have a mid shot when used on 35mm film (HDTV 1.78:1 16:9 aspect ratio), close up on HD Camcorders and big close up on smaller semi-professional, ‘prosumer’ camcorders such as EX-3 and Z1 etc which have 1/2″ sensors and 1/4″ sensors respectively.
This explains therefore why if you mount an HD lens onto a ½? camcorder (such as Sony PDW-F355) without an optically corrected mount, that a wide angle acts like a telephoto and why the focal lengths of wide angle lenses of ½? lenses are always smaller than those used for 2/3″ lenses.
Here is a useful sensor size chart:
For 1/3-inch CCDs: H = 4.8 mm, V = 3.6 mm
For 1/2-inch CCDs: H = 6.4 mm, V = 4.8 mm
For 2/3-inch CCDs: H = 8.8 mm, V = 6.6 mm
For 1-inch CCDs: H = 12.7 mm, V = 9.5 mm

Even though lenses are designed to work with different negative and sensor sizes, the convention is that lenses are still referred to by their focal lengths and/or also their zoom ratios in the case of zoom lenses.
A very useful trick to know is that to convert 35mm focal lengths to 2/3″, just divide by 2.5 and to convert Super16 to 2/3″, divide by 1.6.
Thus a 25mm PL mount film lens has the same field of view as a 10mm 2/3″ lens.
The same lens in Super16 has an equivalent focal length of 16mm and has the same field of view as a 10mm 2/3″ lens.

See more on vmi

Dutch Angles, history of Aspect Ratio Composition and the importance of the Vanguard

Posted in cinema with tags , , , , , , , , , , on 8 settembre 2015 by realuca

Camera angles can communicate a lot of different emotions to your audience; Dutch Angles can help heighten psychological distress and tension, creating a cinematic environment that makes for a thrilling and suspenseful experience, but It must serve your story. For example, if you’ve got a scene in which a man and woman are chatting about scones, you might not want to use a Dutch angle. However, if they’re chatting about scones and the woman has a gun in her pocket with orders to assassinate the man,that would be an excellent time to use one.

Of course the choice of which format to use and how to compose shots, influence storytelling.

But if you want to see what the future of moving pictures looks like, one great place to look is what’s going on in experimental and avant-garde film: If classic narrative films are prose, then experimental films are poetry.

Meaning and Symbolism of Colour in Storytelling

Posted in Cinema e Fotografia with tags , , , , , , on 18 agosto 2015 by realuca

Red Color  Red

Red is the color of fire and blood, so it is associated with energy, war, danger, strength, power, determination as well as passion, desire, and love.

Orange Color  Orange

Orange combines the energy of red and the happiness of yellow. It is associated with joy, sunshine, and the tropics. Orange represents enthusiasm, fascination, happiness, creativity, determination, attraction, success, encouragement, and stimulation.

Yellow Color  Yellow

Yellow is the color of sunshine. It’s associated with joy, happiness, intellect, and energy.

Green Color  Green

Green is the color of nature. It symbolizes growth, harmony, freshness, and fertility. Green has strong emotional correspondence with safety. Dark green is also commonly associated with money.

Blue Color  Blue

Blue is the color of the sky and sea. It is often associated with depth and stability. It symbolizes trust, loyalty, wisdom, confidence, intelligence, faith, truth, and heaven.

Purple combines the stability of blue and the energy of red. Purple is associated with royalty. It symbolizes power, nobility, luxury, and ambition. It conveys wealth and extravagance. Purple is associated with wisdom, dignity, independence, creativity, mystery, and magic.

White Color  White

White is associated with light, goodness, innocence, purity, and virginity. It is considered to be the color of perfection.

Black Color  Black

Black is associated with power, elegance, formality, death, evil, and mystery.

See more on color-wheel-pro

Classic color schemes s

Monochromatic Color Scheme

Monochromatic Color Scheme

The monochromatic color scheme uses variations in lightness and saturation of a single color. This scheme looks clean and elegant. Monochromatic colors go well together, producing a soothing effect. The monochromatic scheme is very easy on the eyes, especially with blue or green hues.

Analogous Color Scheme

Analogous Color Scheme

The analogous color scheme uses colors that are adjacent to each other on the color wheel. One color is used as a dominant color while others are used to enrich the scheme. The analogous scheme is similar to the monochromatic, but offers more nuances.

Complementary Color Scheme

Complementary Color Scheme

The complementary color scheme consists of two colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel. This scheme looks best when you place a warm color against a cool color, for example, red versus green-blue. This scheme is intrinsically high-contrast.

Split Complementary Color Scheme

Split Complementary Color Scheme

The split complementary scheme is a variation of the standard complementary scheme. It uses a color and the two colors adjacent to its complementary. This provides high contrast without the strong tension of the complementary scheme.

Triadic Color Scheme

Triadic Color Scheme

The triadic color scheme uses three colors equally spaced around the color wheel. This scheme is popular among artists because it offers strong visual contrast while retaining harmony and color richness. The triadic scheme is not as contrasting as the complementary scheme, but it looks more balanced and harmonious.

Tetradic (Double Complementary) Color Scheme

Tetradic (Double Complementary) Color Scheme

The tetradic (double complementary) scheme is the most varied because it uses two complementary color pairs. This scheme is hard to harmonize; if all four hues are used in equal amounts, the scheme may look unbalanced, so you should choose a color to be dominant or subdue the colors.

See more on color-wheel-pro

From Noise Reduction to Film Look

Posted in cinema with tags , , , , on 19 aprile 2015 by realuca


You need to do is drag and drop your footage into After Effects. You want to set your project settings so that you are working in a 16bit or 32bit depth. The reason you do this is so that when you add effects and grade your footage, you are not limited to the 8 bit color values (0-255).

When you add your footage to the timeline, the first thing you should do is denoise the footage. The best consumer noise removal tool out there right now is a software called Neat Video. By removing digital noise, you will somewhat mitigate the ugly digital look of your footage, and also have the ability to edit your footage more aggressively. When you denoise your footage, you introduce banding. The reason for this is that areas with subtle gradients previously had variation in the color (noise), now that the variation has been removed, those subtle gradients are more solid/constant making banding more apparent. To remedy this problem we have several options:

  1. Add color grain
  2. Blur individual channels
  3. Use the ramp scatter effect
  4. A combination of all three

I recommend playing around with all three options and seeing what produces the best results. After you have cleaned up your footage, you are ready for FilmConvert.

FilmConvert takes your DSLR footage, and transforms it to look as if the footage was shot on film stock. This is achieved by applying grain, and messing with the colors. You can use it as a stand alone software or as a plug in. The color adjustments is simply to make it look as if you shot the footage strait to a film stock and not to a digital camera and is not intended to be a substitute for color grading.

By now your footage should be free of ugly digital artifacts, have the properties of whatever film stock you chose to mimic, and ready to be color graded in a 16 or 32bit color depth.

Color Grade Your Footage

If you plan on grading in Davinci Resolve (which is free and really cool), render out your After Effects project in one of three formats:

  • DPX
  • TIFF
  • Cineform
  • ProRes
  • Uncompressed native (h.264 .MOV for Canon)

By rendering your video in DPX or TIFF, you avoid degrading your video quality via compression. Exporting DPX files is a more advanced option. If you don’t know what you are doing, you can easily screw up your files when rendering them out. I would not recommend using DPX unless you already know what it is and how to use it. TIFF files will be lossless and, like DPX files, result in extremely large file sizes. If you don’t have the hardware to handle it, opt for Cineform or ProRes. Cineform and ProRes are the two most popular intermediate codecs for amateur filmmakers. If you plan to stay in After Effects, then just leave the footage alone, proceed to the next step with your FilmConvert adjusted footage.

If you want to get even fancier, let Adobe Media Encoder handle all the encoding. In general, working in lossless is a good idea if you are doing professional/paid/commercial work. If you are uploading to Vimeo or Youtube just for non commercial reasons, it is a waste of time and resources. You would be better off working with lower quality files, and spending the saved time and headaches on shooting more footage. My recommendation is this: use cineform, or just work with the original files until the final render.

The Film Look Color:

Today everything is greenish/bluish. I think if you are going for a big budget, crime, thriller, action, or political thriller, than this look is fine. But don’t over do it on the blue/green. If you saw my film look examples or my Criterion look examples, you will see that this is not the look we are going for in most cases. The everything is blue except for skin fad is something that has only become popular in recent years. If you look at older films, you will see that they don’t have this crazy color grading. Here is what the current trend looks like:

Adding Film Grain:

After you have finished color grading your footage, you should add a little bit of extra film grain. The reason I prefer to add even more grain (remember, we dithered the footage with grain, then FilmConvert added additional grain) is because I upload my videos to the internet. And if you read my page about YouTube and Vimeo compression, you will see that when you upload your file, it gets heavily compressed. I often notice that the grain I added to my footage does not show up very well on the internet, so by adding more grain than usual, I am anticipating the effects of compression. I recommended using the film grain provided by Rgrain or Garilla Grain for this job. Both Rgrain and Gorilla Grain are cheap solutions for getting good looking grain. You get multiple grain styles packaged as video loops. By using video loops, you make rendering and editing much less stressful on your computer hardware. If you want film grain that is real and doesn’t cost an arm and a leg, buy Grain35 by CrumplePop. If you want grain that is even better than Grain35, go with CineGrain or IndieScans. CineGrain and IndieScans provide robust packages of very high quality film grains that are very easy to edit. Unfortunately their prices are too steep for amateur filmmakers working with tiny budgets.

See more on filmbrute

Slow Motion & Flickering >> Red Epic vs Alexa

Posted in cinema with tags , , , , , on 18 aprile 2015 by realuca

Light Requirements

Just because your camera is shooting slow motion doesn’t mean that it’s magic.  Just like any other frame you’re putting together, it needs light.  The higher your frame rate, the more light it needs.  This translates into the need for fast lenses, well lit areas, and higher ISO.  I find myself in a shooting situation where the production is asking for 300fps with the RED Epic and there’s little to no light in the scene.  If you don’t have proper lighting for your slow motion shot, you should expect a corresponding result…

Let’s do some quick math.  If you’re shooting a 180° shutter (standard for most cinematic shooting), your shutter speed will be 1/48 for regular 24fps shooting.  Correspondingly, your light needs increase as you raise your frame rate:

24fps = 1/48 (benchmark light level)
48fps = 1/96 (1 stop light loss)
60fps = 1/120
96fps = 1/192 (2 stops light loss)
120fps = 1/240
192fps = 1/384 (3 stops light loss)
240fps = 1/480
300fps = 1/600 (just under 4 stops light loss)

Know your shutter angles

and to what extent you want them for your shots and the corresponding amount of motion blur – this can help you in a pinch.  If you’re shooting 300fps and can pull off 360° shutter angle instead of 180° – this will allow in twice the amount of light.  When you’re talking about extremely high frame rates – this can be a true blessing as long as your image works out.  Do some tests at 360° and review the footage.  If those motion blur for your action is acceptable, you just gained a full stop off light compared to 180° shutter.

Flickering Lights

If you’re working around practicals that are fluorescents, there’s a good chance you’re going to see flickering.  If you’re shooting narrative and it’s not horror genre, this is very likely to be unwanted.  When it comes to current cycles and older wiring, fluorescents are most often not flicker free.  Bring your own lights.  Do camera tests to make sure things look how they should in playback.  Even flicker-free HMIs can fall short when it comes to shooting high speed.  Their flicker free ballasts usually have a switch between flicker-free and normal running and when switching you will see a reduction – but often still see a rolling band through the footage.

See more on mitchmartinez


Natural Light vs Artificial Light

There is two simple equations to give you rough calculation of how much light you’ll need. X (special frame rate) divided by Y (natural frame rate – 25 fps) = Z (how many times more light you need) So In our case: X (200) divided by Y (25) = Z (8) You’ll need roughly eight times as much light as you would shooting at 25 fps. Also worth knowing is that every time you double the frame rate you have to go up one f-stop. So 25 fps to 50 fps equals 1f-stop up , 50 to 100 equals 2 f-stops up, 100 to 200 equals 3 etc.

Shutter Speed

In the process of setting up the camera each setting play its role. But there is one I haven’t mentioned until now. Shutter Speed. The default setting on the RED is 23,98 fps time base so don’t forget to change it to 25 or you’ll have trouble with the shutter speed and in post production, especially if you’re used to working at 25 fps time base.

When you shoot at 25 fps the shutter speed is 1/50, but when you change the frame rate to 200 fps the RED automatically sets the shutter at 1/200. That could work but I prefer to double up 1/400 in order get ride of the blurring caused by camera movement or camera shake. In addition, it gives me a more precise focus point and an image with more peaking and detail as well as compensating for any faults which might appear due to the focal length. When you shoot at this frame rate, you cannot be out of focus.

These settings continue to make the camera less sensitive. So it allows me to compensate by re- opening the diaphragm a little. It re-establishes some depth of field in the shot (so that not everything is in focus, even with the 18 mm). It also allows me to take pity on my FP (not that he needs it) but it’s a team effort after all! Which is how we were able to pull off a tracking shot using an 85mm lense on a homemade dolly.

See more on raindance

  • Flickering. Artificial lighting is much more likely to flicker at higher frame rates; always try to shoot under bright daylight or continuous studio lighting when possible. See the tutorial on flicker-free shutter speeds for additional tips.
  • Motion Blur. Viewers typically expect to see minimal motion blur with slow motion, so shutter angles smaller than the standard 180° may be necessary. However, without extra lighting this may require larger apertures and higher ISO speeds, which may come at the expense of sharpness and noise.
  • Detail. Shooting at very high frame rates typically requires lower resolution. It’s therefore more critical than ever that these images have the highest quality possible. For example, light permitting, stopping the lens down by 1-2 stops will improve sharpness. In post, using the unsharp mask and denoise tools can also help. Most importantly though, use the highest quality lenses available.
  • Wide Angles. With RED cameras, shooting at lower resolutions means the outer portion of the frame gets cropped out — causing the image to appear as if it were taken with a longer focal length. For example, when shooting at 2K as opposed to 5K resolution, the effective focal length will increase by 2.5X (causing a 20 mm lens to appear as if it were 50 mm). See the interactive RED crop factor tool to see what happens with your specific settings.

Alternatively try Twixtor and Flicker Free plug in for After Effects


Ricevi al tuo indirizzo email tutti i nuovi post del sito.

%d blogger cliccano Mi Piace per questo: